Christian Era Calendars summarizes key identifiers leading to date placements within the Common Era.  Roman and Jewish influence involving week and month naming, astrology and mythology prevail upon early church history.  Sabbath continuity combines with Easter and Christmas origins to adapt modern scriptural patterns.  New Testament articles serve spiritual aspects embracing Jesus and calendar science.

cross1a.jpgChristian Era Calendars
Readers that delight in having knowledge of the Holy Bible will supplement their understanding of the New Testament with the latest of Christian_Era_Calendars articles.  The four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, were written between about 70 A.D. and 130 A.D.  At the time of writing, the apostle authors were primarily Jewish sectarians that used traditional Jewish Calendar reckoning.  The earliest form of the Roman solar calendar likewise influenced New Testament scriptures.  Emerging Christianity would share a dual calendar system for time recording.  Consider that the Jewish Calendar is still in use in our modern times and that the Roman solar calendar has evolved to become universally applied as the calendar we use today. Comparing both the Jewish Calendar and the Roman Calendar discovers deeper insight for Holy Bible study.  Christian_Era_Calendars tracks some 2,000 years of world history.
New Covenant Sabbath Day
God ordained the Sabbath Day as a special day for all Judeo-Christian heritage.  Christianity celebrates the sacred seven day week according to the solar calendar. Christian observance of Sunday begins at Saturday midnight and continues until Sunday midnight.  Both cases for Judeo-Christian religious use of the seven day week subscribe to the Ten Commandments given to Moses.  To maintain the covenant, the Sabbath is a day to commune with God.  The Sabbath serves our spiritual needs.  The Sabbath contrasts other days of the week, wherein mundane needs of daily survival are met.

Contemporary Messianic Judaism respects both Jewish and Christian philosophies regarding the sacred Sabbath day observance.  The fact that either faith repeats seven days of the week to uphold the Sabbath forms the spiritual backbone of lunar and solar calendars.  Religious direction for humanity stems from early Biblical generations, customs and traditions. Supporting the Sabbath day as holy is mandatory in both theologies. The Ten Commandments establish the Sabbath.  Work accomplished on that day should be done for God and humanity.  Saturday is the Shabbat of Jewish culture, and Sunday is the Sabbath of Christianity. The seven-day week galvanizes religious observation of the calendar year.
The idea of Sabbath was a continuance of Jewish lore.  Final position of a Christian Sabbath on Sunday arose from the growing movement and a series of calendar modifications.  Broader concerns of the calendar functions are visible by surveying roughly 400 years worth of history. We mix factual evidence about time recording with the spiritual, supernatural realm made manifest in the Word.  Seriously approaching aruva, or the crossover transition from Old Testament to New Testaments enlarges our view of Messiah Christ.  Calendar dates and years, and the numbers involved, are mere fragments of the co-eternal time that subscribes to sovereign rule by our Lord.
Two main calendar themes were in service to lead us into the New Testament era.  Upon the Roman calendar would be impressed certain Christian based celebrations.  The Roman solar calendar was adjusted according to governmental controls and worship patterns of the emerging Christian church.  Feasts and festivals from the Jewish Calendar were incorporated into the calendar of the Holy Roman Empire.  The co-eternal scope of the Lord recognizes Jesus was timeless: "a priest forever on the order of Melchizedek" (Hebrews 6:20).  Woven together to give us the Christian Gregorian calendar of today are elements of the Roman calendar, Jewish Calendar and other religious persuasions.
In the year 45 B.C., the Egyptian solar calendar was adopted by the Roman Empire.  The Roman Empire had faced many problems caused by an unstable calendar system.  The previous Roman Calendar year had been based on a ten month sexigesimal system, with each month having 36 days.  A 360 day length of year left about 5.25 days unaccounted for every year. Intercalations were many and abstract. Compounding this shortfall, there was no natural time keeping system to measure the Roman month.  Shipments of goods, taxes, and holidays all were met with difficulty, because of the extensive size of the Roman Empire. Governors of individual city-states drew tributes according to whim and greed.  To correct this confusion, Julius Caesar mandated the Egyptian Calendar year of 365 and one-quarter days be adopted throughout the Roman Empire. The month of July still bears the name of its patron.  Julius Caesar assigned four quarters of 91 days with an alternating order of months to be 31 days, or 30 days.
Christians that live by the New Testament will aid their understanding of the gospels, and other works of the Apostles, by noting the Jewish Calendar was in effect for the writings of the early Christian Church.  The former Roman solar calendar had been based on 10 months of 36 days each, plus 5 special festival days following the winter solstice.  The Roman Empire was expanding geographically throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East.  Crucial events recorded for the life of Jesus Christ used the Jewish Calendar for reference.  For the most part, early Christians included Jewish worshippers, and others who avoided practicing faith to Greco-Roman gods.  The idea of using Sunday as the Sabbath was brought forward by original Christians.  About 313 A.D., Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity influenced the Sunday Roman custom. Spreading the Gospel advanced the Roman Julian Calendar.  In 359-360 C.E., Jewish leaders faced persecution by the territorial government of the Roman Empire.  Pressure to stabilize the Jewish Calendar, and the use of special holiday periods, was applied to Jewish leadership.  Feeling this, Rabbi Hillel II and his counterparts were ordered not to issue any intercalations.  The 19 year lunar/solar calendar accredited to the Athenian astronomer, Meton, was chosen.
Jewish Calendar in the New Testament
Jesus fulfilled the scriptural prophecies of the Old Testament in the New Testament. Among the many prophets were Hosea, Micah, Zechariah, Malachi, and especially the 8th century B.C. prophet, Isaiah. Christianity emphasizes the prophecies, and the steps to completion.  Many feel the predictions were totally independent of calendar deployment.  The Almighty could have chosen any time and any place for fulfillment.  On the other hand, time is the critical factor to any foretold event.  The yardstick used to measure this phase of time passing is, of course, the calendar.
For early Christians, the Jewish Calendar sequence of lunar observation was the more familiar method for keeping track of months and years.  The sun, moon, and stars are natural timekeepers that govern the Jewish Calendar.  Based on the now traditional 19 year lunar/solar cycle, Judaism followers throughout the world agree on specific worship times.
To fully realize the eternal nature of our heavenly Father, and the works of his son: Messiah Christ, the revelations of the calendar must be addressed. A thorough background of New Testament calendar reasearch must underline elements of faith long since agreed to. Chiefly, the Jewish Calendar and Roman solar calendar were distinctly isolated, parallel versions of time recording until the life of Christ. The scriptures are one means of bridging between two forms of calendar usage. Historical evidence also suggests that both types of calendars were partially transitional. World time recording had reached an important impasse. Lunar/solar calendar patterns, such as the Jewish and Greek, had been predominant until the onset of Christianity. The Roman shift to a strictly solar calendar under Julian Ceasar expanded with the growing Roman empire. Global use of the Roman solar calendar accompanied Roman authority. The new covenant of Christ appended Judaism, which uses the Jewish Calendar, to seek Gentile believers that worship according to a solar calendar. The Roman solar calendar became recognized as Christian.
At the time of Christ, most observant Jewish believers worshipped according to a 19-year calendar pattern. Known as the 19-year Metonic Cycle, the Jewish Calendar employs complete lunar months. Each lunar month began with the New Moon Sanctification by recognition of the Sanhedrin (often referred to as Council, Matthew 5:22 and many other verses, RKJ version). Policy dictated that two witnesses in two different locations, in or near Jerusalem, must testify to sighting the new moon crescent. A vote by the Sanhedrin was then required to officially reckon a new month beginning.
Lunar/Solar Time Reckoning Methods
The Jewish Calendar below is the most widely known lunar/solar calendar still in continuous use in our modern times. The fundamentals of the Jewish Calendar year are simple when one understands the system used. Twelve complete moon, lunar months that average about 29.5 days each amount to one regular lunar year. Twelve mature lunar months multiply by 29.5 days per lunar month for 354 days to approximate the lunar year (Eqn. 1).

Time differences between lunar and solar calendar years provide lunar/solar calendar adjustments, or intercalations. Subtraction yields 11 days of lunar/solar separation time between the lunar year of 12 moon months and the solar year of about 365 days (Eqn. 2). Eleven days of difference every year were the staple for lunar/solar calendars. During 19 years, 11 days of lunar/solar separation time every year multiply this division between lunar years and solar years (Eqn. 3). Lunar/solar separation time measures 209 days of difference after 19 years have passed. Therefore, any 19 year lunar/solar calendar cycle had to incorporate these remaining 209 days of separation as intercalary days in order to catch up the lunar side of the calendar, with the solar side of the calendar. Intercalary systems varied between cultures to compensate calendar recording.

Equations 1-3

1. 29.5 days per lunar month x 12 lunar months = 354 days per lunar year

2. 365 days per solar year - 354 days per lunar year
= 11 days of lunar/solar separation time per lunar/solar calendar year
3. 11 days of lunar/solar separation time per lunar/solar calendar year x 19-years per lunar/solar calendar cycle
= 209 days of separation per 19-year lunar/solar cycle
and Approximates to 210 days of separation per 20-year lunar/solar calendar cycle

The Jewish Shabbat begins just before sunset of the evening before the day of celebration. Shabbat commences on Friday evening. Proper religious tradition toward Shabbat and other holidays within the Jewish Calendar is maintained by following service obligations. Shabbat repeats once every seven days, although each Shabbat is uniquely different. Lunar sequences are the mainstay of the Jewish Calendar and foundational to Judaism.
The four seasons are an important aspect of the Jewish calendar. The solar calendar year of about 365 days was proven by trail and error over many years. Time differences between lunar and solar calendar years were the basis for luni-solar calendar adjustments, or intercalations. Early people had to know planting and harvesting times for the crops they raised in order to survive. The Jewish Calendar was anchored at the time of Moses. In preparation for the Exodus, Jehovah directed Moses to commence the Jewish calendar (Exodus 12:2). The calendar served the emerging slaves.
Since the beginning of recorded chronology, the Jewish Calendar has been in effect. Minor changes, modifications, and intercalations have caused slight variations in the Jewish luni-solar calendar since earliest days of the Creation. The concept of a 19 or 20 year cycle involved with a lunar/solar calendar branched many times over thousands of years. Religion and governmental rule always compromised to manage society. While other civilizations, kings and dynasties, and empires, rose and fell, the Jewish Calendar was consistent in basic format.

The Jewish Calendar is dated according to the Creation. Accepted tradition begins the Jewish Calendar at 3,761 years before the present Christian era (BCE), or from the time of Adam. Given in chapter 5 of Genesis, exact ages of Adam and his descendants are added in order. Comparatively little calendar information remains to suggest this starting date some 5771 years ago. Agricultural tasks once marked certain seasons within the Jewish Calendar. Beginning in the fall: sowing, barley harvest, and the gathering of fruits were seasonal examples of feasts and festivals that would embrace the oldest calendar mechanics in existence.
Sacred calendar periods are defined by natural motion of the sun and moon. God divided, separated, or was coming between day and night. Complete lunar months and seven day weeks were the prime instruments of time keeping. Since the early Israelites depended upon crop production for survival, planting and reaping times had to fall nearly the same time every solar year. Intercalations were, and still are, necessary to keep the lunar year of twelve months on track with the 365-day solar year.
In the very ancient Bible times of Genesis, the Jewish Calendar shared common traits with other calendars. Lunar/solar calendars abounded throughout the Holy Lands. Lunar/solar calendars were used by the ancient Greek, Sumerian and Babylonian cultures. In the Orient, the ancient Chinese utilized 19 year lunar/solar calendar cyles. South and Central American groups such as the Aztec, Inca and Maya societies practiced variations of sister lunar/solar. Similar to later calendars, the Jewish Calendar was in service at the time of Adam. The Jewish Calendar measured the ages written for Adam and his descendant family. The flood of Noah, and the first five books of Moses likewise used the Jewish Calendar. The most basic time recording procedures are entrenched throughout world history.
New Testament reckoning is predominently measured according to Passover festivals. Beginning just after sunset, the Passover is an entire week long Sabbath holiday. Jesus and the apostles were observant according to the customary Jewish feast and festivals. Luke 2:41 mentions that Christ was raised by his parents, Joseph and Mary, in a traditional Jewish family setting. Most references indicate the following story took place during years 7-8 in A. D. reckoning.
Luke 2:41
"Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover."
As a boy about 12 years old, Christ tarried behind at the temple to " about my Father's business". The story begins a direct affiliation with the Jewish Calendar, namely the festival of Passover, for the life of Christ. The annual pilgramage journey to Jerusalem was commanded by the laws of Judaism for all adult males. Outstanding are the scriptures that explain, after three days, the child Jesus was found talking with teachers (Rabbis) who "were astonished at his understanding and answers.'
New Testament chronlogy is also heavily dependant upon another scripture that identifies the beginning of ministry. Following Baptism by John the Baptist, and descent from heaven by the Holy Spirit, Luke 3:23 narrates the genealogy of Christ.
Luke 3:23
"And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as it was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli,"
To see this verse in a brighter light, several interesting points need to be commented upon. The Christian date, 26 A.D. is usually given for the start of public ministry. Differering translations have drawn conclusion from Numbers 4:47, that have saturated Christian thinking at large. Finally, Matthew 4:17 proclaims the Lord's triumph.
Numbers 4:47
"From thirty years old and upward even unto fifty years old, every one that came to do the service of the ministry,
and the service of the burden in the tabernacle of the congregation,"
Levites undertook their service at the age of thirty, which was also considered to be the age of maturity. Aligning the beginning of public ministry is the harmony of the gospels. The Baptism of Jesus was immediately followed by the decent of the Holy Spirit, in bodily form - like a dove.  A voice booming out from heaven then said:
"Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased"
Matthew 3:16-17, Mark 1:10-11, Luke 3:22.
One of the most important scriptures dealing with Christian chronology is the binding announcement of Jesus.

Matthew 4:17
"From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say: Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand."
John 10:22
"And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter."

Origins of Easter and Christmas

Holy_Communion.jpgOrigins of Easter
Easter is the triumphal anniversary festival over darkness for the resurrection of Christ. Eaostre was originally a pagan festival, derived from natural Earth motion. The vernal equinox, near to March 21, is the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. The end of winter and the beginning of spring began the new year in many ancient cultures. On the equinox, the hours of daylight are equal to the interval from sunset to sunrise, or night. Eastre was the Anglo-Saxon goddess for the spring equinox. The first Council of Nicaea fixed the date of Easter according to the proclamation of "the first Sunday after the first full moon following the spring equinox." Following Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity, the Council of Nicaea initiated the important celebration known to all Christians in 325 A.D. Constantine was the main proponent for a Sunday Christian Sabbath.
Several factors influenced Easter dating by early Church fathers. Some wished to observe Easter on the Passover, since the Jewish Calendar was the common way to record the gospel era. At the Last Supper, Christ was partaking of the "Feast of Unleavened Bread," or the Passover (Luke 22:1 - 20). Communion reflects the last supper, which was a passover meal (Matthew 26:2). Through the Holy Communion, representation is practiced by the Christian faith in order to reach the King of the Jews; Jesus Christ.

Peace_on_Earth.jpgOrigins of ChristmasJoy_to_the_World.jpg
The Christmas season honors the Nativity, and the hope of rebirth in eternal life that comes through the birth of Christ. In the fourth quarter of the year, the ancient Egyptians once held a festival called the "Nativity of the Sun's Walking Stick." The failing daylight of the sun suggested the need of a walking stick, or staff, to aid the sun during the last part of transit. As representative of the sun - god, the Pharaoh walked around temple walls using a staff. Significance of the walking staff is visible when the power of the rod of God is displayed before the Egyptian Pharaoh (Exodus 7:10 - 12). Aaron casts the staff given to Moses down before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a serpent. Pharaoh called the magicians of Egypt to cast down their rods. The magicians' rods became serpents, but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods. Moses and Aaron used the special staff to initiate other plagues of frogs, lice, and fleas on Egypt. Solar worship and Egyptian symbology behind the staff were uniquely related.

Increasing daylight following the winter solstice around December 22, once marked the Roman celebration of Saturnalia. Saturnalia, during December 17 - 24, was in commemoration of the planetary god Saturn. Religious significance was assigned to mark the end of fall sowing, and shortening daylight. About 273 A.D., the Roman Emperor Auerlian instituted the festival of Dies natalis solis invicti , or "birthday of the unconquered Sun." The seven day week ends with Saturday, reiterating the notion of Saturnalia ending the year. Pagan ceremonies were changed to Christian in 354 A.D., and the birthday of Christ was declared to be December 25.
Week Day and Month Names of the Gregorian Calendar

Open_Face_Calendar.jpgWeek Day Names of the Gregorian Calendar
The seven day week divided the Roman solar calendar subordinate to the seven planetary gods whose movements were believed to regulate the universe. Weekday names are a translated version of the same Latin identifier. Expansion of the Roman Empire into Northern Europe combined Norse and Anglo-Saxon religious astrology. Each of the seven heavenly bodies known: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn, are represented in the modern Gregorian Calendar week. Earth was thought to be the center of the early solar system. The seven wandering stars helped perpetuate the esteemed seven day week.
May-July.jpgMonth Names of the Gregorian Calendar

Zodiac_Signs50pc.jpgZodiac Calendar

Study of the heavens included the seven wandering stars, or moving celestial bodies that give us the weekday names. Greek and Roman mythologies placed the wanderers against the fixed constellations called the zodiac. Twelve signs of the zodiac begin with the first point of Aries.

Zodiac Calendar History

Aries: March 21 - April 19  At the two equinoxes, the sun crosses the celestial equator in the spring and fall. Mars was the Roman god of war, and equates to the Greek god Ares. Spelled Aries by modern English, the sun rises in Aries for a month beginning at the spring equinox. The Pliedes were seven stars that marked the new year by advancing the zodiac to the next sign of Taurus. The seven sisters were featured in Greek architecture facing east. The Porch of the Seven Maidens honors the feminine deities that appeared on the cusp separating Aries and Taurus. The Porch of the Seven Sisters is attached to the famed Parthenon Temple of Athena. Located high atop the Acropolis hill outside of Athens, the Greek home of the gods served tribute to the stars.

The Romans divided the month according to the Calends on the first day of each month, the Nones for the ninth day proceeding the Ides, and the Ides. The Nones of March, May, July and October were on the seventh of the month, and on the fifth day during the other months. Months of March, May, July, and October had the Ides on the fifteenth, and the other months held the Ides on the thirteenth. The first day, Calends, of April, is now on March 21 due to leap adjustments via the Gregorian Calendar. The 10 month Roman Calendar began the new year following the end of December on April 1. The expression "April Fool's Day" is a modern remnant of the 2,000 year old calendar.

Taurus: April 20 - May 20  The constellation includes the star Aldebaran as the right eye of the bull. Taurus is charging Orion in the night sky. Aldebaran was one of the four "royal stars" said to rule over the heavenly 91-day quarters of the year. Four royal stars preside over all of creation according to Enoch. Aldebaran presided over the first quarter. Only the face of Taurus, horns, and shoulders show in heaven. The body of Taurus was cut off by a cloud to allow space for other figures.

Gemini: May 21 - June 20  The stars Castor and Pollux form the Gemini twins. Cardinal points of the year were the two equinoxes, and the two solstices. The summer solstice near June 21 earmarks the end of the zodiacal constellation Gemini. Describing the duality of the solstices, Gemini twins are often shown facing opposite directions. Gemini twins and the two faces of Janus look opposite to symbolize facing the past and future. The month of June comes to us from the Latin Junii , or gens . Several families of a house, or clan sharing a common ancestor provide the meaning behind the sixth month.
Cancer: June 21 - July 22  The mythical Crab Nebula, was easily visible some 2,500 years ago when it was farthest north, and marked the sun's rising position at the beginning of summer. Located between Gemini and Leo, the Crab Nebula was equal to Jupiter in brightness about the year 1,000 A.D. Due to calendar changes, and the procession of the equinoxes, the sun does not pass near this beehive cluster until around the first of August. From Cancer, the Tropic of Cancer marks the imaginary maximum latitudinal solstice line of 23.5 degrees to the North, above the Equator. The Tropic of Capricorn is the latitudinal solstice line of 23.5 degrees to the South of the Equator.

July and August were named months inserted by Julius, and respectively, Augustus, Caesars. Sixty days had to be accounted for when 10 months were shortened from 36 days to 30 days each. Sixty days were halved for two 30 day months called July and August. The former Roman Calendar, like Egyptian, had 360 days with five extra intercalary days being added to the end of the year. The Julian Calendar spread the five days amongst January, March, May, July, and October. February was supposed to have 30 days in leap years to alternate with the 31 days of January and March. Augustus Caesar shortened February to 29 days in leap years, making the month of August 31 days long.

Leo: July 23 - August 22  The zodiacal sign and constellation for the lion is Leo. Both the bull, and the lion had significance in Babylonian mythology. Six stars form the sickle of Leo. The brightest star, Regulus, is at one end of the handle. Regulus was a royal star that ruled over the second quarter of the ancient year. The lion probably represented summertime heat in Mesopotamia, and the kingly qualities found in leaders. Julius and Augustus chose to insert their named months under the sign of Leo.
Virgo: August 23 - September 22  The virgin goddess denotes the sign and constellation of Astraea. Man's increasing complexity caused the Greek virgin goddess of justice to leave the Earth when she felt no longer needed. Linked to Phoenician Astarte, she represented the Earth - mother fertility issue by announcing the fall harvest. The last four months of the old Roman Calendar had numerical names. Sept is the Latin prefix for the seventh month, in September of the former Roman year.
Libra: September 23 - October 23  The balance scales show the distinction of the autumnal equinox by sitting in the center of the zodiac, opposite to the spring equinox. From the Latin, Libra means balance and symmetry. During the equinox 2,000 years ago, the sun crossed the celestial equator, or ecliptic near to Libra. The beginning of autumn has drifted westward into Virgo. Libra has been known as the claws of Scorpio, or sometimes the scales for the goddess of justice, Virgo. Libra owes its importance to the position held in the zodiacal circle. Octo is the Latin prefix that produced October as the eighth month.

Scorpio: October 23 - November 21  The constellation for the scorpion is the first of the watery signs. Probably, watery signs once marked the rainy season of Mesopotamia. Scorpio is the eighth constellation of the zodiac belt. Scorpio lies between Libra and Sagittarius, and contains the brilliant red star Antares. Antares is the royal star that once marked the fourth quarter of the year. Novem resulted in the ninth month, November.
Sagittarius: November 22 - December 21  The celestial archer in the heavens is often pictured as a centaur. Sagitta translates from the Latin phrase to represent an arrow. Sagittarius is also a traveler, or an explorer, whose arrow is aimed at the scorpion. Deca provided December for the tenth and last month of 36 days in the former year.
Capricorn: December 22 - January 20  The goat constellation is named from the Latin Caper, or goat, plus the Cornu , which means horn. Capricorn is related to the 5-day terminal festival Saturnalia of the Romans. The mythological animal has the body of a horse, or goat, with usually a single horn pointing outward from the forehead. The sun enters Capricorn on the winter solstice, or about December 22 in our Gregorian Calendar. Saturnalia attached Capricorn to Saturday in the early Roman Calendar of 10 months. Saturday ended the week, and Saturnalia ended the year. In the Julian 12 month calendar, Capricorn began the new year after the last five days were added to 360 days. A year of 365 days in the Julian system was completed on December 31.
Aquarius: January 21 - February 19  The famed water bearer sign pours the water upon the ground so that the crops will grow. Named watery constellations of the zodiac include Capricornus, the sea goat, followed by Aquarius, the careless water carrier and dominant figure of the watery zodiac scene. Aquarius spills the water urn to mark an irregular stream of dim stars. Waters of life descend into the mouth of the Southern Fish, or Pisces.

Pisces: February 20 - March 20  Two fish are usually imagined to be tied together with a long ribbon, knotted at either end and center. Pisces is the last watery sign and the last sign in the annual cycle. The bright Pisces Austrinus star is a first magnitude star and the brightest in the watery constellations. Called Fomalhaut, and pronounced Fo-mal-hut, the name is corruptive of the Arabic Fum al Hut, meaning the mouth of the fish. The cord ties together one fish before the upcoming equinox, and the other as dual ends of the equinox that leads into Aries, and the new zodiacal year.

Early church fathers combined the Julian Calendar with Jewish Calendar influence. Declaring Sunday, rather than Saturday, as the persistent Christian Sabbath Day served the Roman definition of changing the days at midnight. Subtracting five days from December 31 results in the older Roman year ending on December 26 of the later Julian dating scheme. To maintain the Roman purificatory festival on February 15, the same 50 day interval between the day after New Year's Day and Februarius would be observed by reducing January from 36 days to 31 days. Reducing December from 36 days to 31 days accomplished the same omission of five days as returning to the former 360 day Roman year.

Modifications done by Augustus Caesar were already installed by 354 A.D. which spread out five days prior to December 26. December 25 was chosen for Christ's Mas instead of December 26 to stay with the Jewish tradition of counting days at twilight on December 25. Another way of figuring the winter solstice, or the New Year of the Julian Calendar, is to use the modern solstice approximation on December 22. Since the Gregorian Calendar rule concerning centennial leap days was not yet effective, three days would have to be added to slip the winter solstice for each of the three hundred years. Three days added to December 22 puts the winter solstice on December 25 of the year 354 A.D. The intentions of the founding church fathers were to place Christmas Day on New Year's Day, and the Roman festival Februarius on February 15 every year. Gregorian Calendar changes in 1,582 dealt only with the days between New Year's Day and the spring equinox. The other days fell into place.

Are you a pastor, educator or a student of the Holy Bible? seeks anointed people to review and contribute to the Ages_of_Adam ministry.  Ancient lunar/solar calendars like the Jewish and Mayan calendars provide the background to understanding early time.  Ancient calendars of the Holy Bible use differences between the moon and sun, numerical matching and a 364-day calendar year to describe X-number of days that match with X-number of years.  Ages_of_Adam is a free read at timeemits.

Clark Nelson is webmaster for, author of Ages_of_Adam and sequel, Holy_of_Holies.  Copyright 2006  Clark Nelson and  All Rights Reserved.  URL

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